December 12, 2009

Chapter 1: Sunset

The news coverage of William Douglas Pawley’s suicide in Miami leaves out details of his role on the Doolittle Committee which looked into the effectiveness of the CIA in 1954. The Committee's recommendation to become more ruthless than the enemy formalized a dark diplomacy with ramifications that reverberated around the world for the next half-century.

Chapter 2: “Cuba”

William Douglas Pawley spends his childhood at Guantanamo Bay and earns the nickname “Cuba.” In 1919, he weds his first wife, and then makes a fortune in Florida real estate. In the 1930s he starts Compania Nacional Cubana de Aviacion Curtiss in Cuba.

Chapter 3: The “I” of the Tiger

William Pawley expedites the creation of China National Aviation Corp. He then forms Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company, headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, to recruit Claire Chennault and other pilots for The Flying Tigers (American Volunteer Group) which defends Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek’s forces against the invading Japanese. This brings Pawley into contact with President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Madame Chiang’s brother, T.V. Soong, who finances the Flying Tigers and then emerges from World War II as one of the wealthiest men in the world and a leader of the China Lobby. Pawley shifts aircraft manufacturing to the safety of India to support the American pilots. He gains major press coverage from newspapers and Time magazine, which leads to his friendship with Henry and Clare Boothe Luce, a woman with similar political opinions and interests. Pawley later states that during this period “I first began to feel a growing alarm at the threat of world communism.”

Chapter 4: Divorce Cuban-style

Pawley divorces Annie Hahr Dobbs who contests the divorce all the way to the Supreme Court. He marries Edna Earle Cadenhead in India where they worked together. As the war ends, they move to Belvoir, the estate of the late Fairfax Harrison in Virginia. Pawley urges President Truman and Churchill to pressure Stalin to “desist Soviet subversive activities in the Americas.”

Chapter 5: The Diplomat

Pawley is appointed by President Truman as Ambassador to Peru, where his assistant is future CIA Deputy Director during Watergate, Vernon Walters. Pawley then becomes Ambassador to Brazil, which he feels has great oil production potential that should be exploited by Standard Oil. He ingratiates himself to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. Pawley makes it his mission to fight communism in Latin America and questions the loyalty of U.S. Ambassador Spruille Braden. When a young Robert F. Kennedy visits Latin America, Pawley plays host to him. Stomach problems eventually lead Pawley to consider leaving his post.

Chapter 6: Welcome to Rio

Pawley organizes a conference in Rio de Janeiro, attended by leaders of South American countries, President Truman and General George C. Marshall.

Chapter 7: Pawley’s Plans for Marshall

General Marshall emerges as a leading figure in the recovery of Europe after World War II, and Pawley pressures Marshall to focus attention on South America as well.

Chapter 8: The Bogotázo

William Pawley organizes the Ninth Conference of the Inter-American States in Bogotá where riots, led by Fidel Castro, break out, endangering the life of General Marshall and other attendees. The Bogotázo was called “The Pearl Harbor of Latin America” and Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, Director of Central Intelligence, is called before Congress to answer why his newly formed agency had not seen it coming. The New York Times criticizes Pawley’s claims of conference success.

Chapter 9: Truman vs. Dewey

Former Ambassador William D. Pawley returns to the United States to work with Averill Harriman and others on the re-election of President Truman. Pawley negotiates the creation of U.S. air bases in Spain with General Francisco Franco.

Chapter 10: Friends in Need

William Pawley offers to send his DC-3 plane to pick up General Marshall after kidney surgery so the General can relax at Pawley’s Florida home. The Pawleys and Marshalls become lasting friends. Pawley is operated on for adhesions in the intestinal tract.

Chapter 11: Father of the Groom

Ambassador William Douglas Pawley’s son, William, is engaged to actress Elizabeth Taylor. She breaks off the engagement and makes her first successful movie as an adult, Father of the Bride.

Chapter 12: Betting on the Nationalists

T.V. Soong is labeled a war criminal by the Chinese communists and comes to the United States. William Douglas Pawley sends a letter to Secretary of State Dean Acheson suggesting that a group of up to 150 civilian economic advisors and retired military officers be sent to Taiwan to support Chiang in his opposition to the communists who were taking over the Chinese mainland. In January 1950, Commerce International China, a subsidiary of World Commerce Corporation, was established to provide the advisors. The parent company was controlled by former Office of Strategic Services head William Donovan. Others with an interest in the company were William Pawley, Nelson Rockefeller, John J. McCloy and W. T. Keswick, a British intelligence chief in Asia. Chennault refuses to be involved with any organization that includes Pawley.

Chapter 13: The Plunge

Recent former Secretary of Defense James Forrestal is found dead on the grounds of Bethesda Naval Hospital. Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin is convinced that Forrestal was “hounded” to death by communists, and McCarthyism begins. He alleges extensive communist penetration of the State Department, and William Pawley blames State for the loss of China to the communists. Pawley is asked by Cuban President Carlos Prío Socarrás to come to Cuba to run the Havana bus company with the same efficiency that Pawley was running his bus company in Miami. Pawley later wrote, “Collective bargaining, as I learned the hard way, was often conducted by pistol-packing labor leaders, mostly Communists, backed by menacing squads of goons. Open assassinations on the streets were commonplace.”

Chapter 14: Background Checks

The CIA starts background checks on Pawley for a variety of missions. Pawley succeeds in moving tons of uranium out of India so it won’t fall into the hands of communists in Russia and China. Pawley is sworn in as a special assistant to the Secretary of State, attends a NATO conference in Portugal. As a special assistant to Secretary of Defense Robert Lovett, Pawley secures tactical air fields in France and Germany for the support of ground forces under NATO plans. Pawley’s son, Clifton, dies suddenly of polio in Mexico. William and Edna Pawley spend months in Paris. In a background check, General Chennault states that he regarded Pawley’s record in India and China as questionable and Pawley “was involved in attempted bribery.” The CIA looks into Pawley’s investment in Civil Air Transport which begins providing cover for CIA operations in Southeast Asia and becomes Air America. Pawley offers to buy a 500-acre farm in Virginia for President Eisenhower. Edna Pawley congratulates General Marshall on winning the Nobel Peace Prize.

Chapter 15: The Fruits of PBSUCCESS

CIA Director suggests sending Pawley to assess the situation in Guatemala in preparation for planning a coup against leftist President Arbenz whose agrarian reform would hurt United Fruit. The project, PBSUCCESS, brings together Pawley and CIA agents E. Howard Hunt, David Phillips, Tracy Barnes and the CIA’s covert operations head, J. C. King, who would later be involved in planning the Bay of Pigs invasion. Pawley receives covert security clearance and gladly participates in coup planning to prevent a communist beachhead from forming in Central America.

Chapter 16: The Doolittle Committee

President Eisenhower learns that Pawley believes there was breach of national security because of a comment made during tennis by Washington Post publisher Phil Graham. Ike then tells Pawley he wants him to conduct a thorough investigation of the covert side of CIA operations. The group became known as the Doolittle Committee, comprised of Pawley, World War II hero General James Doolittle, accountant William Franke and Rockefeller attorney Morris Hadley.

Chapter 17: The Lawyer

Morris Hadley is named to the Doolittle Committee. He is a law partner of John J. McCloy who had been a business partner of William D. Pawley after World War II ended. The firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy represents the Rockefeller family interests.

Chapter 18: The Accountant

William Franke is named to the Doolittle Committee. Like William Pawley, he had recently been a special assistant to Secretary of Defense Lovett.

Chapter 19: The General

General “Jimmy” Doolittle is named to head the Doolittle Committee. He had once been a test pilot for William Pawley.

Chapter 20: Fact Finding and Forgetting

The Doolittle Committee members interview key figures involved in covert policy, make their recommendations and try to have no record or memory of their work. Included here are details of my interviews with Morris Hadley and William Franke. The report’s most significant recommendation: The CIA should become “more ruthless” than the enemy and “no one should stand in the way of this mission.” The entire report is included as an addendum in the back of the book.

Chapter 21: The Caribbean Oyster

CIA documents indicate Pawley is engaged in petroleum activities in the Dominican Republic. Pawley’s financial interests in the Caribbean expand into mining and tourism. His brother, Edward, has a secret concession for Dominican Republic postage issues.

Chapter 22: Suspicious Minds

The John Birch Society adds its voice to the anticommunist movement. It is named for a Christian minister who had been sent by James Doolittle to serve as an intelligent agent for the Flying Tigers. CIA and State Department officials meet at Pawley’s home to discuss the deteriorating situation in Cuba and fears of communism taking hold there. Pawley tries to convince Cuban President Batista to step down so Castro’s ascendancy to power can be blocked.

Chapter 23: Find Me Someone to Kill Castro

Batista refuses to step down and Pawley’s old communist nemesis from the Bogotázo, Fidel Castro, comes to power within less than 100 miles of Pawley’s home and business interests. Pawley helps resettle Batista and offers to pay for Castro’s assassination. He then helps CIA Director Allen Dulles organize thousands of exiles fleeing Cuba. Pawley’s efforts endear him to conservatives and he lashes out at liberals in the State Department whom he believes have undermined him and lost both China and Cuba to communism. On December 29, 1959 Pawley again receives covert security clearance for contacts with the CIA JMWAVE anti-Castro program and becomes involved in Bay of Pigs planning.

Chapter 24: Informant R-1

Pawley has the CIA install a recording device in his office so he can accurately report his conversations with anti-Castro Cubans. Pawley draws up a list of individuals he believes should run Cuba after Castro is overthrown. Not everyone within the CIA and the Cuban exile community is happy with his list. Pawley estimates that two million dollars will be needed to retake Cuba. The FBI detects Pawley’s activities and reports that Pawley had been meeting with several exiles at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, DC, and upon leaving the meeting he told them he was going to meet with CIA Director Allen Dulles and Vice President Richard Nixon. The FBI notes: “Pawley has been known to compare Trujillo with Abraham Lincoln.” General George C. Marshall dies.

Chapter 25: The QDDALE Cryptonym

Pawley is given a cryptonym for use in planning an operation through the CIA’s JMWAVE base in Miami. Another person with a QD cryptonym is QDBIAS, Maj. Pedro Diaz Lanz, who conducts activities against Castro with Frank Fiorini (aka Frank Sturgis, a future Watergate burglar along with E. Howard Hunt).

Chapter 26: Who’s Running the Show

Castro expropriates 70,000 acres of property owned by U.S. sugar companies and United Fruit. Pawley and Vice President Nixon, as common enemies of communism, work together with the CIA on the Castro problem. Pawley believes that the infrastructure of the CIA’s Cuban operations is innately flawed. An informant reports that another Cuban political leader believes that Pawley is running the show. Considerable disagreement emerges among Cuban exiles.

Chapter 27: Dancing with Awkward Partners

At Pawley’s Miami home on April 1, 1960, Pawley pushes for Dr. Juan Antonio Rubio Padilla to be one of the “government in exile” leaders while the Agency’s representatives back Dr. Antonio Varona. The CIA’s Jake Esterline introduces General Cushman to E. Howard Hunt, who was going to move to Mexico with the anti-Castro Frente [FRD]. It “probably was the first occasion on which Richard Nixon heard the name of [future Watergate burglar] E. Howard Hunt.” Pawley is later described as a “big fat political cat” and, as such, the Vice President cannot completely ignore him.

Chapter 28: Pawley, Smathers and Trujillo

Pawley sells his investments in the Dominican Republic and holds a press conference with Senator George Smathers expressing support for Trujillo’s move toward democracy – to keep another communist regime from forming in the Caribbean. In November of 1960, President Eisenhower asks Pawley to see if he could convince Trujillo to step down.

Chapter 29: Exfiltrating

Pawley helps prominent Cuban, Dr. Juan Antonio Rubio Padilla, safely get into the United States. The CIA Director issues a cable saying Fidel Castro is aware of anti-Castro activities in Cuba involving Pawley. In May of 1960, Pawley facilitates discussions between Rubio Padilla, who as a student leader had overthrown a 1930’s Cuban dictator, and Fabio Freyre, a member of a wealthy Cuban family.

Chapter 30: Pawley, Eastland and Sourwine vs. The State Department Menace

As Chairman of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Senator James Eastland repeatedly focuses on the communist threat to the United States through the Caribbean. In 1959, he had questioned Maj. Pedro L. Diaz Lanz (QDBIAS), the Chief of the Cuban Air Force who defected because Castro was leaning toward communism. In 1960, Eastland calls William Pawley (QDDALE) to testify regarding the fall of Cuba and China. Committee chief counsel, J. G. Sourwine, then receives approval to release the executive session statements of Pawley made in September 1960 that “the loss of China, constitutes for me what I believe to be one of the greatest losses and one that in my judgment might be the inevitable cause of World War III.” Pawley blames State Department officials, Roy Rubottom and William Wieland for slanting things in favor of Castro. Pawley later blames “the foggy thinking of ultra-liberals, cotton-headed Utopians and radicals, not to mention covert Communists, all continuing to place Castro in the role of a visionary and champion of the common man” and cites John F. Kennedy among them. Pawley backs the Cuban invasion plan of Eladio del Valle Gutierrez.

Chapter 31: Et tu, Luce

Pawley raises $100,000 for the Nixon campaign, but John F. Kennedy is elected President. His father, Joseph Kennedy, watches the acceptance speech at the home of Henry and Clare Boothe Luce. The Luces then attend the inauguration. Like Pawley, his friend, Henry Luce, had voted for Nixon.

Chapter 32: Pawley’s Invasion Plan

For Pawley, Nixon’s loss meant he was no longer in the position of power that he previously had enjoyed under Presidents Roosevelt, Truman and Eisenhower. Pawley moves quickly to befriend the new president through mutual friend Senator George Smathers and at the same time urges that the invasion be launched before Kennedy is inaugurated. The Mirabal sisters are killed in the Dominican Republic bringing new scrutiny of dictator Trujillo. William and Edna Pawley fly to South America to get Latin American leaders to break relations with Castro while Eisenhower is still in office.

Chapter 33: Presidents Come and Go; Missions Remain

Pawley is so entrenched in planning the overthrow of Castro that a January 6, 1961 CIA Routing and Record Sheet contains a handwritten note stating: “These are messages via the Rubio Padilla/Pawley group. One is copy of program newly formed coalition of 20 groups...” Ten days after President Kennedy’s inauguration, Pawley submits to Secretary of State Dean Rusk a list of potential Cuban leaders and labels Kennedy’s choice “a great error.”

Chapter 34: Government Targets

Pawley criticizes the fact that Kennedy has retained many people whom Pawley considers enemies of the nation. Among them are William Wieland in the State Department and James E. Webb, the new civilian space administrator who frustrated Pawley’s attempts to help Chinese Nationalists in 1949 and 1951. Another Pawley target, Roy Rubottom, is not stripped of his job; instead Kennedy keeps him on as an Ambassador to Argentina. The FBI again reviews Pawley’s executive session testimony before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee regarding the “Communist Threat to the United States Through the Caribbean.”

Chapter 35: Air Coverage

Having founded the Flying Tigers, Pawley is keenly aware of the importance of air support during the Bay of Pigs invasion. He addresses his concerns about air coverage and the disarray among the exiles to higher ups but is frustrated by his lack of access to the new President, a privilege he had under previous administrations.

Chapter 36: Hit Men

CIA officials, who work on other matters with Pawley, contact the Mafia to plot an assassination against Castro.

Chapter 37: The Days of Swine and Rose’s Boys

The Bay of Pigs invasion is launched without the air coverage that Pawley had called for and it ends in disaster. President Kennedy accepts the blame, and Pawley does not forgive him.

Chapter 38: President Kennedy’s Snub of Pawley

Pawley meets directly with the President and calls for a military invasion by 10,000 U.S. Marines. President Kennedy throws Pawley out of the White House and he never returns. Pawley makes his own office available to 300 anti-Castro Cubans.

Chapter 39: Hostage Negotiations

Pawley becomes an active member of the sponsor’s committee of the Cuban Families Committee for Liberation of Prisoners of War to free more than 1100 exiles captured at the Bay of Pigs.

Chapter 40: Trujillo Assassination

Dominican Republic dictator Rafael Trujillo is assassinated. Pawley visits the island and meets the surviving members of the Trujillo family to discuss their safety. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover thanks Pawley for being present at an awards ceremony, “My enjoyment of the event was heightened with the realization that friends such as you were sharing the occasion with me.”

Chapter 41: The Failures of State

Conservative media begins attacking President Kennedy, questioning Wieland’s presence in the State Department.

Chapter 42: Sidetracked

Pawley finally sells his Miami Transit Company and the Miami Beach Railway to Dade County.

Chapter 43: Operation Northwoods

In keeping with the Doolittle Committee policy of being “more ruthless than the enemy,” the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff recommend creating an incident that would justify an invasion of Cuba. Sheffield Edwards, CIA Director of Security, who is overseeing Castro assassination plots using the Mafia, writes a memo about Pawley that notes: “The only unfavorable information consists of certain allegations regarding sharp dealings and questionable ethics in connection with his private business activities.” Pawley attends the Eisenhower Memorial Library dedication.

Chapter 44: Ransom Payments

Pawley, who had once criticized President Kennedy for resorting to using money in dealings with Castro, finds an exception to his own rule and personally pays a $25,000 ransom for Bay of Pigs invader Nestor Fitzgerald Williams. Pawley remains involved in negotiating for the release of the 1,113 remaining prisoners.

Chapter 45: Playing Politics with Nuclear Weapons

Pawley asserts that his underground network detects missiles in Cuba and that Kennedy waited for a politically opportune moment to announce their presence. Pawley wants Cuba bombed. Kennedy negotiates a withdrawal of the missiles that Pawley contends weakens the United States. Pawley denounces President Kennedy in the newspapers and begins “to feel that time was running out for America.” Kennedy meets with the Bay of Pigs Brigade leaders and promises to return their flag to Cuba. Pawley is bitter about the promise and states, “The fate of Cuba and the maintenance of Soviet prestige in that part of the world preoccupied me even when I was busy conducting the affairs of state in Moscow and traveling to the other fraternal countries.”

Chapter 46: Cuban Cacophony ’63

Juan Bosch, who took over leadership in the Dominican Republic after the Trujillo assassination, is critical of Pawley as “one of the most blatant critics of President Kennedy on Cuba.” Senator Barry Goldwater requests a new blockade of Cuba. President Kennedy announces Soviet troop withdrawals from Cuba and cuts off CIA funding to the anti-Castro Cuban Revolutionary Council.

Chapter 47: Citizens Committee for a Free Cuba (CCFC)

The CCFC is formed and begins denouncing Kennedy’s lenient policy toward Cuba. The Committee includes members of the China lobby, individuals with CIA connections and Bay of Pigs planning, and Clare Boothe Luce.

Chapter 48: Our Only Hope, Goldwater

Pawley blasts State Department delays and stupidity, the advice from the “boys at Harvard” and communist tactics for what he terms “desperate problems which are not being taken care of.” Pawley declares presidential candidate Goldwater the “only hope.” President Kennedy gives the commencement speech at American University calling for “genuine peace” with “a direct line between Moscow and Washington.”

Chapter 49: Operation TILT

Pawley navigates his personal yacht, Flying Tiger II, to the Cuban coast with a raiding party bent on spiriting two Russian missile technicians off the Communist island. If successful, President Kennedy will be publicly humiliated before the next election by the technicians’ announcement that there are still missiles in Cuba. People within the CIA are fully aware of the project and give it the codename TILT and use Pawley’s QDDALE cryptonym when referring to him in TILT related documents. Editors from Luce’s Life magazine are involved in the project as well as John Martino, an individual with Mafia contacts from the days when he was involved in security at a Cuban casino. It was “Jay Sourwine of the Senate Internal Security Committee [headed by Senator Eastland] who had asked that QDDALE participate in the operation.” Pawley’s raiding party failed to return.

Would he look for a new way to prevent JFK from being reelected and Castro from staying in power? Could he kill two birds with one stone using his other contacts within the Cuban exile community?

A 51-year-old document declassified in 2011 may provide a clue as to how ruthless Pawley could be be, and if he had the motive, did he also have the means and method to carry out his mission successfully. The February 24, 1960 document is directed to the Ambassador (unnamed) from the Counselor of Embassy of Economic Affairs and has the subject title: Memo of Conversation Dealing with Caribbean Political Tensions, Including Communist Activities in Latin America; and Alleged U.S. Intelligence Deficiencies. The Counselor details a conversation he had with Wallace B. Rouse, a businessman seeking a business deal with Generalissmo Trujillo. who brought up the subject of eliminating Castro. Rouse detailed how someone he referred to as "big bull," who had played golf with President Eisenhower in Washington, DC, sent a man who had been given a gun and money with the promise of "more when he shot Castro. This man made the mistake of going to Mexico first where he was known to the police and jailed."

Chapter 50: “What it is ain't exactly clear.”

President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam is assassinated in a coup. Clare Boothe Luce states, “What seems to be happening to the government in Vietnam is remarkably like what happened to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Madame Chiang in China when the Department of State pulled the rug out from under them; and Mao Tse-tung took China.” President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, and Clare Boothe Luce immediately informs the FBI that the alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, is pro-Castro. Later she tries to explain to CIA Director Colby how she was able to immediately know Oswald’s political leanings by saying friends in the anti-Castro DRE told her. She also states, “Whether you know this or not, it was me who fed the missile stuff to Keating. I knew a number of these [DRE] leaders well; they were going in and out of Cuba, and I paid for one of the motor boats. Bill Pawley did too. We thought we were doing another Flying Tiger.” Other individuals around Pawley and the CCFC make similar statements about Oswald. Luce’s Life magazine purchases the Zapruder film. Pawley’s friend, Senator Eastland, who by law was in line to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy, tells President Johnson he’s ready to “show that this man [Oswald] was the assassin.” Eastland’s investigation is superseded by the creation of the Warren Commission whose member’s include Pawley’s friends, CIA Director Allen Dulles, and business associate John J. McCloy, whose law partner, Morris Hadley, was a member with Pawley on the Doolittle Committee. FBI Director Hoover, who had thanked Pawley for his friendship two years earlier, provides the evidence to prove that Oswald acted alone.

Chapter 51: When Irish Eyes Aren’t Smiling

Days after the Kennedy assassination, former U.S. Ambassador to Ireland Grant Stockdale flies to Washington and talks with Robert Kennedy and Edward Kennedy. On his return to Miami, Stockdale tells several of his friends that “the world was closing in” and commits suicide in Miami. His friend, Senator George Smathers, who had an office in the same building and who had arranged for Pawley to meet President Kennedy in 1961, claims Stockdale was depressed. Another individual in the DuPont Building from which Stockdale jumped was an accountant whose son was “arrested by Cuban authorities in 1961 in a boat loaded with guns.” The “son had recently been associated with Frank Fiorini [aka Frank Sturgis], an American adventurer and self-professed leader of a group of anti-Castro individuals.” Pawley later writes that “while he was praised for fortitude, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, young John Kennedy may well go down in history as the worst President we ever had.”

Chapter 52: The TILT Mystery

The CIA and the families of the crew involved in Operation TILT continue to try to find out the fate of Pawley’s raiders.

Chapter 53: The Conservative Dream Ticket

Pawley, “one of the most respected of Florida Republicans,” is considered “presumptive head” of the Florida delegation for Goldwater. In April 1964, Pawley and other Republican Party leaders tell a GOP forum that there are missiles hidden in Cuban waters. They criticize President Johnson for carrying over the Kennedy administration’s restrictions on raids against Cuba. Among the forum leaders is Dr. Fernando Penabaz, a Cuban exile and newspaper columnist who had been with the JMWAVE psychological warfare section. Penabaz also was an associate of General Edwin Walker, head of the Dallas John Birch Society. The allegation that Lee Harvey Oswald attempted to shoot General Walker helps convince the Warren Commission of Lee Harvey Oswald’s guilt. While Penabaz leaves JMWAVE to become a GOP spokesman, CIA memos circulate at the same time noting that Pawley, the Florida GOP leader, was once again approved for covert utilization “by the Western Hemisphere Division/ Special Activities.” Goldwater loses the election to President Johnson.

Chapter 54: The Invisible Government

Authors David Wise and Thomas Ross write the Invisible Government which dealt with the CIA during the Bay of Pigs period. The book mentions Pawley’s name in a footnote along with other members of the Doolittle Committee. (This footnote led to my interest in Pawley.) In October, Pawley sends FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover a Western Union Telegram to express distress at the criticism of Senator James Eastland and the FBI Director in a recent Herblock editorial cartoon.

Chapter 55: Back to Business

Despite being re-approved for covert activity in 1964, there is a dearth of CIA documents about Pawley over the next three years; yet, in 1965, the U.S. Marines invade the Dominican Republic and Air America expands its activities in Southeast Asia. Pawley becomes president and chairman of Talisman Sugar Corp., among the largest private properties in Central Florida, and names Mike Cervera, a Bay of Pigs invasion participant, the manager of Talisman. In 1966, William Pawley joins Florida National Bank & Trust Co. and becomes a director in the group of banks overseen by du Pont estate trustee Edward Ball who in turn invests in Pawley’s Talisman Sugar. An Iowa newspaper points out that Richard Nixon’s firm is the lobbyist for Talisman and that Pawley is providing heavy financial backing of Nixon as the 1968 Republican candidate. As the election approaches, Anna Chennault, widow of Flying Tiger leader, General Claire Chennault, advises a representative of the South Vietnamese government to stall the Paris Peace Talks until after Nixon is elected President, implying there will be a better outcome to the war with him in office. Nixon wins the election, but Pawley does not get a coveted State Department post. Pawley begins to write his memoir and tells a recent National Security Agency director that he greatly disapproves the potential admission of Red China to the United Nations.

Chapter 56: Maintaining Battle Lines

Pawley is contacted by President Chiang Kai-shek who has never ceased in his belief that his forces will be “recovering the Chinese mainland.” Pawley, Smathers and a business partner of Bebe Rebozo form a group to block FCC re-licensing of stations critical of Vice President Spiro Agnew. Operation TILT participant, John Martino, continues telling audiences about his 1959 arrest by Castro to stir up anti-Castro support. Pawley submits the first draft of his memoir to the Marshall Foundation Library along with a contribution of $60,000. On the tenth anniversary of the Bay of Pigs fiasco, Manuel Artime, the invasion brigade’s civilian political chief, still “travels to Central America and Mexico where some believe he is planning ‘another large scale invasion of the Communist island.’” In August 1971, details about Pawley’s role in Operation TILT begin to surface. In 1972, “the first strike by agricultural workers in Florida history” takes place at Pawley’s Talisman Sugar.

Chapter 57: The Détente Betrayal

In February 1970, national security advisor Henry Kissinger begins secret talks with North Vietnamese. In anticipation of the 1972 election, Nixon determines that détente with both the Soviet Union and Pawley’s much-hated communist China would bring an end to a war that was slowly becoming the longest in U.S. history. E. Howard Hunt joins “the White House Staff as a Consultant to President Nixon preparatory to the President’s visit to the Peoples Republic of China.” In 1972, Hunt, Frank Sturgis (who had regained his citizenship with the help of Senator Smathers), Bernard Barker and other anti-Castro exiles who were involved in Pawley/JMWAVE activities are arrested for breaking into Democrat offices at Watergate. Nixon instructs his chief of staff to alert his domestic affairs adviser, John D. Ehrlichman, that “this whole group of Cubans is tied to the Bay of Pigs.” In the Senate Watergate Hearings, Pawley’s former aide, General Vernon Walters, testifies that Hunt and McCord were full-time CIA employees. Chuck Colson says E. Howard Hunt is too shrewd to get caught unless it was “a deliberate botch.” Pawley believes that the way out of Viet Nam is through U.S. support of Chiang Kai-shek, but Henry Kissinger tells Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1972, “If we can live with a communist government in China, we ought to be able to accept it in Indochina.” Pawley finds irony in the fact that his candidate Nixon has fully surrendered the mainland to communism. Pawley writes in Russia is Winning: “The whole pattern is now colored with a thin, pasty coating called ‘detente,’ a Communist tactic to prepare the trusting democracies for the kill...It can end only in surrender.”

Chapter 58: The Family Jewels’ Investigations

When William E. Colby becomes CIA Director in late 1973, he inherits the 693-page “Family Jewels” compilation from his predecessor, James Schlesinger, who had demanded a detailed report on questionable CIA activities after agents were arrested at Watergate. The report reveals that the Agency had been involved in plotting assassinations of foreign leaders, had developed poisons to facilitate those plots, and had tested LSD and other drugs on unwitting human guinea pigs in America.

Chapter 59: The Fox Investigates the Henhouse Murders

In 1975, a commission headed by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller investigates the 20 years of CIA abuses that had been condoned by the Doolittle Committee. The public is unaware of the fact that Nelson Rockefeller, as a National Security advisor to President Eisenhower, had approved the Doolittle report’s recommendations. The Rockefeller Commission also looks into whether Hunt and Sturgis were involved the Kennedy Assassination and conclude there is “no credible evidence.” Two of the Mafia members involved in plots to assassinate Castro are assassinated.

Chapter 60: QKENCHANT

In 1975, as Vice President Nelson Rockefeller’s committee looks into the possibility that E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis were involved in the Kennedy assassination, Hugh McDonald, a former senior official in the Los Angeles County’s Sheriff’s Office, publishes Appointment in Dallas: The Final Solution to the Assassination of JFK. McDonald asserts that he met “Saul” who was JFK’s assassin and who had died. Coincidentally, in June 1969 the CIA Central Cover Staff showed interest in McDonald for Project QKENCHANT,” the same project that E. Howard Hunt entered in 1970.

Chapter 61: Tale Spin

Bombs explode in Miami and a Bay of Pigs veteran calls the U.S. Secretary of State “public enemy No. 1.” Reports appear in the Washington Star and Soldier of Fortune magazine about Pawley’s involvement in “The Bayo-Pawley Affair.” It contains details of the operation to destroy Kennedy’s reputation but none of the Operation TILT classified documents from the period. Clare Boothe Luce makes her call to CIA Director William Colby and tries to explain why she was so quick to identify Oswald as pro-Castro and reveals how she and her friend Pawley conducted missions against Cuba. In December, the Miami Herald reports that William Pawley is going to be subpoenaed by Senate Investigators and has been ducking phone calls from a subcommittee of Sen. Frank Church’s Intelligence Committee. It is also reported that “Mrs. Luce won’t urge Pawley to release the name [of the Cuban exile who knew Oswald was pro-Castro] to the Senate panel because, she said, ‘Bill is writing his memoirs.’”

Chapter 62: Post-Mortem

Pawley never testifies; he soon commits suicide, and others involved in his JMWAVE activities die within a few years of him from heart attacks, gunshot wounds, car bombings, and hit and runs.

Chapter 63: The Culture of Conspiracy

In 2007, James Pierson attacks “The Culture of Conspiracy” in the Wall Street Journal, questioning the sensibilities of those who have the audacity to believe in plots hatched by groups of people.

He totally ignores Osama Bin Laden’s cells, PBSUCCESS, and the variety of conspiracies concocted at JMWAVE. He also speaks from a point of ignorance because a million documents dealing with the Kennedy assassination are still classified, and many released ones are highly redacted. In 2009, Jefferson Morley in the Washington Independent writes on the topic Obama’s Openness v. CIA Secrecy: JFK Files Show Hurdles to Obama's Transparency Goals and states that “secretive government agencies retain the upper hand over the public and the Congress, even when it comes to records that are more than 30 years old...”

Chapter 64: The Heritage

In 1998, Project for a New American Century (PNAC), which recalls Henry Luce’s “American Century” and is comprised of future Bush Administration members, seeks war against China and Iraq but states that a Pearl Harbor-like provocation would be needed to justify such action in the Middle East. PNAC’s provocation wish is reminiscent of the Joint Chiefs of Staff’s 1962 Operation Northwoods. With the September 11, 2001 attack on the U.S. by a score of suicidal Saudi religious fanatics with box cutters, former PNAC members, Vice President Richard Cheney and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, find the justification needed to rally support for an invasion of Iraq.

In 2010, Cheney proudly asserts that he was “a big supporter of waterboarding” of suspected terrorists held in Guantánamo Bay (where Pawley spent his childhood) despite the Geneva Conventions. Cheney prefers to embrace the principles that William Pawley and the Doolittle Committee set forth a half-a-century ago:

Hitherto acceptable norms of human conduct do not apply. If the United States is to survive, long-standing American concepts of “fair play” must be reconsidered.

We must develop effective espionage and counterespionage services and must learn to subvert, sabotage and destroy our enemies by more clever, more sophisticated and more effective methods than those used against us. It may become necessary that the American people be made acquainted with, understand and support this fundamentally repugnant philosophy.

Within a week of his defense of torture, Cheney appeared at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Washington, DC where the crowd chanted “Run, Dick, run.” Among the 2010 CPAC sponsors were The John Birch Society, The Heritage Foundation and the Clare Boothe Luce Institute which honored  as “Woman of the Year” news commentator Monica Crowley who continued the Luce-Pawley tradition of pandering to pre-Reagan paranoia with profoundly pitiful blog posts.

With the election of President Barack Obama in 2008, Crowley tried to smear him as an Arab African and then embraced the "birther movement" claims that Obama was born in Kenya and unqualified to be President, a concept advanced by real estate branding master Donald Trump. When he outmaneuvered former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in the 2016 Presidential election - winning the electoral vote while losing the popular vote by nearly 3 million votes - Trump named Crowley to join his cabinet as senior director of strategic communications for the National Security Council, serving under U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Michael Flynn whose son promoted the "pizzagate" fake news smear of Hillary Clinton. The senior Flynn was embarrassed into resigning his post when it became apparent that he had contact with Russia prior to Trump being sworn in as President but had misled Vice President Pence about the contact.

Trump, who tweeted his way to victory and beyond, appointed a dozen people who had dealt with Putin, including his Secretary of State choice Rex Tillerson, head of Exxon, giving new meaning to "fellow travelers." Donald Trump while wanting to deal in a friendly manner with Putin criticized President Obama for opening diplomatic talks with Cuba in anticipation of the death of Fidel Castro which came to pass on November 24, 2016. Trump successfully appealed to older Cuban exiles by promising to reverse Obama's policy.

Monica Crowley who launched her career assisting the former anti-communist President Richard Nixon from 1990-1994, tweeted on June 30, 2016 a message encouraging Russian President Vladimir Putin to release hacked Clinton Foundation emails. A frequent FoxNews contributor and GOP advisor, Crowley had to relinquish her National Security position in January 2017 before ever taking it, when it was revealed that she had plagiarized the works of others when writing a book in 2012 as well as her Ph.D. dissertation in 2000. Clare Boothe Luce would not have been proud.

The Death of Elizabeth Taylor

On March 23, 2011, actress Elizabeth Taylor died, bringing fresh interest to her teenage romance with William Pawley Jr. Shortly thereafter more than 60 love letters she wrote to him in 1949 were put up for auction by RR Auction, a New Hampshire company that bought the letters from Pawley, who lives in Florida at age 90.

William Pawley's father's home in Miami Beach where their engagement photos were taken and Taylor and Pawley had their tryst was put on the market for $13.9 million, represented by the The Jills/Coldwell Banker.

The Aquittal of Luis Posada Carilles

In early April 2011, a jury in El Paso, Texas cleared Posada Carrilles after deliberating for just three hours, an unexpectedly swift climax to a closely watched 13-week trial which cast fresh light on the octogenarian's lengthy career as an anti-communist agent. The defendant, a hero to militant anti-Castro exiles, had joined a CIA-backed invasion by Cuban exiles in 1959 and moved to Venezuela where he was accused of masterminding the 1976 suitcase bombing of a Cubana Airlines jet that killed 73 people, including the national fencing team. Months earlier his links with the CIA were severed. He escaped from a Venezuelan jail in 1985, where he spent eight years awaiting trial for the atrocity, which he denied. In an interview with the New York Times he took responsibility for 1997 bomb attacks against Cuba's tourist industry, which killed an Italian tourist in a Havana hotel, but later recanted the confession.

Soon thereafter, nearly 600 Miami Cuban exiles celebrated the return of Posada Carriles at a $40 per plate dinner, which was the latest fundraising effort to help defray Posada's legal expenses. Numerous exile organizations attended the event, including Alpha 66, whose aging militants still openly advocate violent overthrow of the Cuban government. The 83-year-old Posada Carilles told local media he remains a committed soldier in the struggle to free Cuba but that the trial was a bitter pill.